aaS – Stands for “as a service” when a cloud-based solution is delivered or consumed as a service. The phrase is usually preceded by a capital letter that indicates the cloud-based provision, as in Infrastructure (IaaS), Platform (PaaS), or Software (SaaS).
Advertising-based pricing model – The service provider and the ads are bundled with the services that are delivered to the consumer.
Amazon EC2 – Also known as Amazon’s Elastic Compute Cloud, a web service that provides re-sizable computing capacity in the cloud, so that developers can enjoy great scalability for building applications.
Amazon S3 – Amazon’s cloud storage service, also known as Amazon Simple Storage Services.
Amazon Web Services (AWS) – A set of services that create a reliable, scalable, and inexpensive computing platform “in the cloud”. For more information, visit aws.amazon.com/
ANSI - American National Standards Institute (ANSI). This organization is the coordinator for national standards in the United States. It is a member of non-treaty international standards organizations, and coordinates the activities involved in US participation in these groups.
Any-to-any connections – A platform that works across internal and external applications, protocols, and systems, and integrates data and processes among business partners and communities. Any-to-any connections go beyond point-to-point or application-to-application connections.
B2B integration – Business-to-business or multi-enterprise information exchange between a company and its customers, partners or suppliers to integrate critical business processes and exchange real-time electronic messages.
Billing and service usage metering – A pay-as-you-go model whereby the service provider charges for services that the consumer selected, rather than the entire package. For example, news outlets may let you read 8 articles for free, and then start charging you to read a certain amount of articles per week or month.
Content delivery network (CDN) – Content that exists on multiple computers and can be retrieved by anyone with access to the network.
Cloud – A metaphor for a global network, from the telephone to the Internet. A cloud has five essential characteristics: on-demand service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, and measured service. See also Cloud Computing.
Cloud application – A software application that is never installed on a local machine and is only accessed over the Internet. In the Cloud Pyramid, the Cloud Application is the top layer of a software application that is only accessible on the web. The application is controlled by the service provider, such as Gmail or SalesForce.com.
Cloud arcs – Cloud architectures are designs for software applications that can be accessed and used over the Internet.
Cloud-based integration solutions – A cloud architecture that integrates data, applications, and business (B2B) processes.
Cloud bridge – Running an application so that its components are integrated within a multiple cloud environment, including any combination of internal/private and external/public clouds.
Cloud broker – An entity that creates and maintains relationships with multiple cloud service customers and cloud service providers. It acts as a liaison between and across clouds and applications, often providing integration services as well as real-time reporting, analytics and monitoring. See Gartner’s “Cloud Services Brokerage“.
Cloudburst – An outage or security breach that occurs in a cloud and makes its services unavailable. Cloudbursts can have negative or positive consequences. A negative cloudburst occurs when a cloud-computing environment cannot a handle a spike in demand. A positive cloudburst addresses a spike in demand by rapidly deploying a software application that enables increased usage and prevents a communications breakdown.
Cloudburst (negative) – A negative cloudburst occurs when a cloud-computing environment cannot handle a spike in demand.
Cloudburst (positive) – A positive cloudburst addresses a spike in demand by rapidly deploying a software application that enables increased usage and prevents a communications breakdown.
Cloud center – A cloud architecture that comprises a data center that rents components of its infrastructure. Renting store space that is accessible on amazon.com is a good example.
Cloud client – A computing device for cloud computing.
Cloud computing – Cloud computing differs from the classic client-server model, which requires an application to be installed on the client’s computer. Instead, cloud-computing applications are executed and managed by a client’s web browser from its underlying technical architecture (e.g., servers, storage, and networks) with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. Centralization allows cloud service providers to control browser-based applications, version upgrades, and updated end user license agreements. Clouds have five essential characteristics: on-demand self-service, broad network access, resource pooling, rapid elasticity, and measured service. One requests a service (resource), not a specific server (machine). Infrastructure, applications, and business processes can be delivered to you as a service, over the Internet (or your own network). “The Cloud” enables Hardware (HaaS), Infrastructure (IaaS), Platform (PaaS), or Service (SaaS) that are installed on the client’s web-based device(s).
Cloud enabler – Organizations (typically vendors) that make cloud-computing technologies, such as cloudware, available to clients so they can engage in cloud computing.
Cloud Computing Manifesto – A document with a “public declaration of principles and intentions” for cloud computing providers and vendors. It is annotated as a “call to action for the worldwide cloud community” and the “dedicated belief that the cloud should be open.” It is based on the Cloud Computing Bill of Rights. Companies known to have rejected the document by declining to be signatories include Amazon, Google, Microsoft, and salesforce.com.
Cloud envy – A phrase applied to a vendor who jumps on the cloud computing bandwagon by rebranding existing services.
Cloud governance and compliance – Policies and procedures about the cloud infrastructure for individuals and groups to follow.
Cloud hosting – A type of Internet hosting in which the client leases scalable infrastructure on an as-needed basis. Typically, clients can select the operating system and other infrastructure components. Cloud hosting is usually offered as a self-service. Billing is controlled via a Web interface or API, usually hourly or monthly.
Cloud Infrastructure – The bottom layer (or foundation) of the Cloud Pyramid delivers the computer infrastructure. It includes servers, networks, and other hardware appliances that are delivered as Infrastructure Web Services or “cloud centers.” Examples include GoGrid and Amazon Web Services.
Cloud manageability – Managing asset provisions and quality of service (QOS) consistently in on-site and cloud-based environments.
Cloud network – This occurs when multiple cloud computing environments are connecting. Also called Cloud storm.
Cloud operating system – A computer operating system that is specially designed to run in a provider’s data center and to be delivered to the user over the Internet or another network. Windows Azure is an example of a cloud operating system or “cloud layer” that runs on Windows Server 2008. The term also applies to cloud-based client operating systems, including Google Chrome OS.
Cloud-Oriented Architecture (COA) – A term coined by Jeff Barr at Amazon Web Services to describe an architecture or IT infrastructure where software applications act as services in the cloud and serve other applications in the cloud environment.
Cloud platform – The middle layer of the Cloud Pyramid. It provides a computing platform or framework. Examples include .NET, Ruby on Rails, Python, Google AppEngine, and Microsoft Azure.
Cloud portability – The ability to move applications (and often associated data) across cloud computing environments, cloud providers, and public/external and private/internal clouds. Also known as cloud standards.
Cloud providers – Cloud computing service providers whose product/platform is based on virtualization of computing resources and a utility-based payment model. A company that provides cloud-based platform, infrastructure, application, or storage services to clients, usually for a fee.
Cloud Pyramid – A visual representation of the layers of cloud computing that are differentiated by functionality. The most basic cloud pyramid includes infrastructure, platform, and application layers.
Cloud servers – Virtual servers running a Windows or Linux operating system through a web interface or API.
Cloud service – Applications or application components that act as services in the cloud and are provided to clients.
Cloud Service Architecture (CSA) – Architecture with applications and application components that act as services in the cloud and serve other applications in the same cloud environment. Jeff Barr, chief evangelist at Amazon Web Services coined the phrase.
Cloud sourcing – Replacing traditional IT services with cloud services.
Cloud standards – See also Cloud portability.
Cloud storage – A service that allows customers to save data by transferring it over the Internet or another network to an off-site storage system maintained by a third party. The customer can access the data on any device with a web connection.
Cloud storm – This occurs when multiple cloud computing environments are connecting. Also called cloud network.
Cloud storming – See Cloud storm.
Cloudware – The software that enables a cloud-computing environment to build, deploy, run, or manage applications.
Cloud washing – Applying the word “cloud” to products and services you already have.
Cluster – A group of linked computers that function as a single computer, for high availability and/or load balancing.
Community cloud – See Hybrid cloud.
Consumption-based pricing model – The service provider charges its customers for the amount of service consumed, rather than a time-based fee. A good example is charging per gigabyte of information stored. See also Subscription-based pricing model.
Customer self-service – A feature that allows customers to provision, manage, and terminate services through a Web interface or API, without involving the service provider.
Data in the cloud – Managing data in the cloud requires data security and privacy, including controls for moving data from point A to point B and managing data storage and resources for large-scale data processing.
Disruptive technology – A term used to describe innovations that improve products or services in unexpected ways and cause dramatic change the way things are done. Cloud computing is often referred to as a disruptive technology because it changes the way IT services are procured, deployed, and maintained.
EAN - European Article Numbering (EAN) is the European equivalent of a UPS number.
ebXML Electronic Business extensible Markup Language (ebXML) provides an open XML-based infrastructure, enabling use of e-business information in an interoperable, secure and consistent manner by all parties.
E-commerce Electronic commerce (eCommerce) is a business-to-business (B2B) initiative aimed at communicating business transaction documents on a real-time or near real-time basis between known trading partners, such as suppliers, customers and, increasingly, between a supplier's supplier or a customer's customer.
EDI - Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is commonly defined as the computer-to-computer electronic exchange of business documents in a standard format.
EDIFACT UN/EDIFACT is commonly known as EDIFACT and stands for "Electronic Data Interchange for Administration, Commerce and Transport." EDIFACT is the international EDI standard introduced by the United Nations Economic Commission.
Elasticity and scalability – The cloud is elastic and scalable because resource allocations and the scale of the cloud can increase or decrease depending on rising and falling demand for use. Cloud applications can also be scaled to adapt to changes in features and functionality.
Elastic computing – The ability to automatically provision and de-provision cloud services according to rising and falling demands for use.
Electronic Envelope - An electronic envelope consists of codes that mark the boundaries of electronic documents. The electronic envelope contains EDI documents and sender and receiver information.
Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) - Automatically transferring payment to a provider's or supplier's bank account.
Electronic Mailbox - A term used to refer to the place where an EDI transmission is stored for pickup or delivery within a third-party service system. Trading partners can also maintain mailboxes within their own domains.
Electronic Signature - A form of authentication that lets you identify and validate a transaction by means of an authorization code.
Element - A building block in an EDI document. Elements are grouped together to produce segments, which in turn are grouped together to form an EDI document. (See Data Element.)
Encryption - A process of transforming clear text (data in its original form) into cipher text (encryption output of a cryptographic algorithm) for security or privacy (Security Transaction Set 815).
Flat File - Sometimes referred to as an interface file, a flat file is designed to hold EDI data prior to and following translation or transmission to and from a trading partner.
FTP - File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a common way to move files between computers over the Internet. Anonymous FTP gives users access (without an ID and password) to areas on a remote system that contain public files.
Functional Acknowledgment - An ASC X12 transaction set (997), which acts as a certified mail receipt to confirm that the intended recipient actually received the EDI documents that have been sent. Provides transaction syntax-level error reporting.
Funnel cloud – A discussion about cloud computing that swirls around but falls through.
Google Cloud Platform – A service that enables developers to create and run Web applications on Google’s infrastructure and share their applications. Google offers a pay-as-you-go, consumption-based plan, with no setup costs or recurring fees.
Google Apps – Google’s SaaS offering includes an office productivity suite that includes Gmail, Google Talk for instant messaging, Google Calendar, and Google Docs (word processor, spreadsheet, and slide presentation software) that can be accessed and shared in the cloud. Google also offers Google Cloud Connect for Microsoft Office.
Hardware as a service (HaaS) –. Cloud hardware services delivered by the provider via the Web. See also IaaS.
Hosted application – An Internet-based or Web-based application software program that runs on a remote server and can be accessed via an Internet-connected PC or device. See also IaaS.
Procurys integration platform – An any-to-any platform that creates collaboration across internal and external applications, protocols, and systems. It goes beyond point-to-point or application-to-application connections and integrates data and processes across supply chain, demand chain, e-commerce, logistics, and financial entities.
Hybrid cloud – A network composed of two or more clouds (public, private, or community) that offer the benefits of multiple deployment models.
IBM Smart Business – The suite of IBM cloud solutions, which include IBM Smart Business Test Cloud, IBM Smart Analytics Cloud, IBM Smart Business Storage Cloud, IBM Information Archive, IBM Lotus Live, and IBM Lotus Live iNotes.
iCloud – Apple’s cloud computing service (formerly iTools, .Mac, and Mobile Me) allows users to store data on amazon and azure servers for downloading to Apple’s multiple devices (iPhones, iPads, iPods) and on personal computers with Mac OS X or Microsoft Windows. The iCloud acts as a data-syncing center for Mac services and replaces MobileMe.
Identity management – Managing personal identity information so that access to computer resources, applications, data, and services is secure.
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) – Cloud infrastructure services (servers, network equipment, and software) that are delivered by the service provider from the Web. Iaas evolved from web hosting and virtual private server offerings. Instead of buying servers, software, data center space, or network equipment, a client pays for an outsourced service.
Intercloud – The Intercloud is a global “cloud of clouds,” a concept similar to the Internet’s “network of networks.” In 2007, Kevin Kelly coined the term. In 2009, the term became popular and is often used to describe the data center of the future. According to the Intercloud scenario, each individual cloud does not have infinite physical resources and its infrastructure could burst by over-saturated demand from users. In theory, each cloud can use the infrastructure resources of other clouds. However, that possibility poses significant challenges, including federation, security, interoperability, vendor lock-ins, legal issues, QoS, monitoring, and billing. But, in practice, infrastructure sharing could inspire new business models and opportunities.
Internal cloud – A type of private cloud with services provided internally by an IT department.
Java - A programming language for the Internet developed by Sun Microsystems (Now Oracle).
Java Script - A scripting language for the Internet developed by Netscape.
JIT - Just-in-time.
Loop - A group of semantically related segments; these segments may be either bounded or unbounded (X12.6). The N1 loop is an example of a loop that includes Segments N1 to PER for name and address information.
Managed file transfer (MFT) – The transfer of data or files from one computer to another through a network (e.g. the Internet). MFT typically refers to software solutions, either on-premise or cloud-based.
Mandatory (M) - An EDI data element/segment requirement designator that indicates the presence of a specified data element is required.
Mapping - A process of identifying the relationship of standard EDI data elements to application data elements. A map is the link between a trading partner's proprietary data format and the related EDI transaction set.
Mashup – A Web-based application that combines data and/or functionality from multiple sources.
Message - The entire data stream including the outer envelope.
Microsoft Azure – A Platform as a Service (PaaS) that allows developers to create cloud applications and services.
Middleware – A set of software services that exist between applications and operating systems. Middleware enables interoperability by supporting the passing of data between applications on distributed architectures. Thus, data in one database can be accessed through another database.
Multi-tenancy – Sharing of resources by multiple companies over a cloud.
On-demand service – A model by which a client can purchase cloud services as needed.
Pay as you go – A cost model for cloud services that encompasses both subscription-based and consumption-based models, rather than pay-in-advance methods for purchasing hardware and software.
Personal cloud – A personal wireless router that takes a mobile wireless signal and translates it to Wi-Fi. It is synonymous with MiFi, but often pronounced “ME-fi,” as in “the personal cloud belongs to me — but if you’re nice I’ll let you connect.”
Platform as a Service (PaaS) – Cloud platform services that are delivered by the provider via the Web. The PaaS layer offers black-box services so developers can build applications on top of the platform.
Private clouds – A private/internal cloud behind a company’s firewall or private space dedicated to a company in a cloud provider’s data center.
Public cloud – Services offered over the Internet and available to anyone who wants to purchase the service.
Roaming workloads – The backend product of cloud centers.
Software as a Service (SaaS) – Cloud application services delivered by the provider via the Web. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) services is a good example. Also known as Application Service Providers (ASP).
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) - An encryption protocol developed by Netscape for transmitting documents securely over the Internet. It allows for authenticated and encrypted communication between browsers and servers, or between different servers.
Self-service provisioning – Cloud customers can purchase application services to use and deprovision according to their business requirements.
Segment - A group of elements which, when appropriately assembled, comprise an EDI document.
Segment Directory - This provides a purpose and format for the segments used in the construction of transaction sets. The directory lists each segment by name, purpose, identifier, the contained data elements in the specified order and the requirement designator for each data element.
Segment Identifier - A unique identifier for a segment, consisting of a combination of two or three upper-case letters and digits. The segment identifier occupies the first-character positions of the segment. It is not a data element.
Segment Terminator - A unique character appearing at the end of a segment to indicate the termination of the segment (e.g., N/L).
Sender/Receiver ID - A unique number or series of characters which identifies a trading partner on all EDI networks.
Service Bureau - A commercial service providing data storage, reporting and telecommunications links. Also a third-party supplier of EDI services.
Service migration – The act of moving from one cloud service or vendor to another.
Service provider – The company or organization that provides a public or private cloud service.
Service level agreement (SLA) – A contractual agreement by which a service provider defines the level of service, responsibilities, priorities, and guarantees regarding availability, performance, and other aspects of the service.
Signed Receipt - Same as Receipt, but with a digital signature applied. (See Receipt.)
SMTP - Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is a protocol for sending electronic mail messages between computers.
SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) is an XML-based protocol for information exchange in decentralized and distributed environments.
Standardized interfaces – Cloud services should have standardized APIs that provide instructions for two applications or data sources to communicate with each other. A standardized interface lets the customer link cloud services together.
Subscription-based pricing model – A pricing model that lets customers pay a fee to use the service for a particular time period, often used for SaaS services.
Supply Chain Management (SCM) - The delivery of customer and economic value through integrated management of the flow of physical goods and associated information, from raw materials sourcing to delivery of finished products to consumers.
Trading Partner - Term used by customers, suppliers and vendors to indicate they are in an EDI relationship.
UCC - Uniform Code Council
UCCnet - A division of the UCC that helps drive global data synchronization between suppliers and buyers.
UN/EDIFACT - EDIFACT - This is EDI for administration, commerce and transport. It is widely used throughout Europe.
UPC - A Universal Product Code (UPC) is a unique product identification number that is used by items that will be scanned at Point-Of-Sale.
URI -Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) have been known by many names: WWW addresses, Universal Document Identifiers, Universal Resource Identifiers and, finally, a combination of Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) and Names (URNs). As far as HTTP is concerned, URIs are simply formatted strings that identify—via name, location or any other characteristic—a resource.
URL - Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a standard naming convention on the Internet
VAN - A Value-Added Network (VAN) is a third-party service that acts as an electronic postal system for EDI transactions. VANs are equipped to accept a variety of telecommunications protocols, enabling connectivity between organizations with different telecommunications protocols.
Utility computing – Online computing or storage sold as a metered commercial service in a way similar to a public utility.
Vendor lock-in – Lack of standardized protocols, APIs, data structures (schemas), and service models make it difficult to move from one cloud to another. This can result in being dependent on a particular cloud vendor for service provisions.
Vertical cloud – A cloud-computing environment that is optimized for use in a particular industry, such as health care or financial services.
Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) – A concept that is derived from Virtual Private Network (VPN) and applied to cloud computing. —–It involves turning a public cloud into a secure VPC, across internal and external components. Reuven Cohen, CEO and founder of Enomaly, coined the term.
Virtual private data center – Resources grouped according to specific business objectives.
Windows Live Services – Microsoft’s cloud-based consumer applications, which include Windows Live Mail, Windows Live Photo Gallery, Windows Live Calendar, Windows Live Events, Windows Live Skydrive, Windows Live Spaces, Windows Live Messenger, Windows Live Writer, and Windows Live for Mobile.
WSDL - Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is an XML-based protocol for information exchange in decentralized and distributed environments.